1975 in spaceflight

In 1975 several notable events happened in spaceflight such as the launch and arrival at Venus of Venera9 and 10, the launch to Mars of the Viking orbiter/landers missions, the joint Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, and the launch of satellite Aryabhatta.

  • The Venera 9 mission was launched 8 June 1975 and on 20 October 1975 became the first spacecraft to orbit Venus; two days later its lander returned the first images from the surface of any planet (other than Earth).
  • Venera 10 was launched on 14 June 1975; it entered orbit of Venus on 23 October 1975 and its lander arrived on the surface of Venus on 25 October 1975. Both Venera 9 and Venera 10 returned various scientific observations of Venus and black-and-white television pictures from the planet’s surface.
  • Viking 1 was launched on 20 August 1975 and Viking 2 was launched 9 September 1975. This orbiter/lander mission was to photograph the surface of Mars in 1976.
  • The Apollo-Soyuz saw an end to the space race with the US and USSR. The mission was launched between 15 July 1975 and 17 July 1975.
  • On 19 April India launched its first satellite, Aryabhatta with success.

1975 in spaceflight

Artist’s impression of the ASTP docking
Orbital launches
First 10 January
Last 27 December
Total 132
Catalogued 125
National firsts
Satellite  India
Rockets
Maiden flights Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Delta 3000
Diamant-BP4
Long March 2C
N-I
Scout F-1
Titan III(34)B
Retirements Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Delta 1000
Diamant-BP4
Saturn IB
Scout F-1
Crewed flights
Orbital 4
Suborbital 1
Total travellers 9
This science-related list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (July 2019)

. . . 1975 in spaceflight . . .

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ =CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

10 January
21:43:37
Soyuz BaikonurSite 1/5
Soyuz 17 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 19 February
11:03
Successful
Crewed flight with two cosmonauts, first mission to Salyut 4

February

March

April

5 April
11:04:54
Soyuz Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 7K-T #39 Intended: Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 11:26 Launch failure
Crewed flight with two cosmonauts, first and second core stages failed to separate, flight aborted and crew returned on suborbital trajectory
9 April
23:58:02
Delta 1410 VandenbergSLC-2W NASA
GEOS-3 NASA Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Successful
19 April Kosmos-3M Kapustin Yar Soviet Interkosmos programme
Aryabhatta ISRO Low Earth X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics studies 11 February 1992 Launch success, payload partial failure
First Indian satellite; payload failed 4–5 days after launch

May

7 May
22:45:01
Scout F-1 San Marco mobile range, Kenya CRS
SAS 3 NASA Low Earth X-ray astronomy 9 April 1979 Successful
24 May
14:58:10
Soyuz Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 18 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition 26 July
14:18
Successful
Crewed flight with two cosmonauts, final mission to Salyut 4

June

July

15 July
14:58:10
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 19 Low Earth (Apollo) International docking 21 July
10:50
Successful
Crewed flight with two cosmonauts, Soviet contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project
15 July
19:50:01
Saturn IB KennedyLC-39B NASA
Apollo NASA Low Earth (Soyuz 19) International docking 24 July
21:18
Successful
DM-2 NASA Low Earth (Apollo) Docking adaptor 2 August Successful
Crewed flight with three astronauts, American contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, final flight of the Apollo programme and the Saturn rocket

August

20 August
21:22:00
Titan IIIE Cape CanaveralLC-41
Viking 1 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
Viking 1 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander 20 July 1976
11:53:06
Successful
Lander landed in Chryse Planitia, becoming the first US spacecraft to land on Mars. It operated until 11 November 1982 when communications were lost due to an erroneous command being sent to the spacecraft. Orbiter was deactivated on 17 August 1980.

September

9 September
18:39:00
Titan IIIE Cape Canaveral LC-41
Viking 2 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiter In orbit Successful
Viking 2 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander 3 September 1976
22:58:20
Successful
Lander landed in Utopia Planitia and operated until its batteries failed on 11 April 1980. Orbiter was deactivated on 25 July 1978.

October

16 October
22:40:00
Delta 2914 Cape CanaveralSLC-17B NASA
GOES 1 NOAA Geostationary Meteorology In orbit Successful
First operational geostationary weather satellite. Deactivated on March 7, 1985

November

December

. . . 1975 in spaceflight . . .

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. . . 1975 in spaceflight . . .

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