Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China

The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China are the revisions and constitutional amendments to the original constitution to meet the requisites of the nation and the political status of Taiwan. The Additional Articles are usually attached after the original constitution as a separate document. It also has its own preamble and article ordering different from the original constitution.[1]

Constitutional revisions and amendments that serve as the Constitution of Taiwan
“Constitution of Taiwan” redirects here. For the original constitution, see Constitution of the Republic of China.
Additional Articles of
the Constitution of
the Republic of China
Original title

中華民國憲法增修條文

Jurisdiction Free area of the Republic of China
Ratified April 22, 1991
Date effective May 1, 1991
System Unitarysemi-presidentialrepublic
Branches Five (Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examination, Control)
Head of state President
Chambers Unicameral
(Legislative Yuan)
Executive Executive Yuan
led by the Premier
Judiciary Judicial Yuan
Federalism Unitary
Electoral college No
First legislature January 1, 1992 (NA)
February 1, 1993 (LY)
Amendments 7
Last amended June 10, 2005
Commissioned by National Assembly
Signatories 438 of the 445 remaining delegates elected in 1947, in Taipei
Supersedes Most articles of the original Constitution of the Republic of China
Additional Articles of
the Constitution of
the Republic of China
Traditional Chinese 中華民國憲法
增修條文
Simplified Chinese 中华民国宪法
增修条文
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Mínguó Xiànfǎ Zēngxiū Tiáowén
Bopomofo ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄒㄧㄢˋ ㄈㄚˋ ㄗㄥ ㄒㄧㄡ ㄊㄧㄠˊ ㄨㄣˊ
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Jonghwa Min’gwo Shiannfaa Tzengshiou Tyauwen
Wade–Giles Chung¹-hua² Min²-kuo² Hsien⁴-fa³ Tseng¹-hsiu¹ T’iao²-wen²
Tongyong Pinyin Jhonghuá Mínguó Siànfǎ Zengsiou Tiáowún
MPS2 Jūnghuá Mínguó Shiànfǎ Tzēngshiōu Tiáuwén
Hakka
Romanization Chûng-fà Mìn-koet Hien-fap Chen-siû Thiàu-vùn
Southern Min
HokkienPOJ Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Hiàn-hoat Cheng-siu Tiâu-bûn
Tâi-lô Tiong-hûa Bîn-kok Hiàn-huat Tsing-siu Tiâu-bûn
 Taiwan portal

The Additional Articles are the fundamental law of the present government of the Republic of China on Taiwan since 1991, last amended in 2005.

. . . Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China . . .

The territory controlled by the Government of the Republic of China changed significantly after the Chinese Civil War. This created difficulties in holding elections on a national scale. Thus, the Additional Articles of the Constitution defines the Free Area (Chinese: 自由地區, Mandarin: Zìyóu Dìqū, Taiwanese: Chū-iû Tē-khu, Hakka: Chhṳ-yù Thi-khî) to address the territory and the people under the government‘s effective jurisdiction. Whilst all residents of China are nominally citizens of the Republic,[citation needed] only the citizens who have the right to abode in the Free Area may exercise the full civil and political rights, including suffrage and referendum.

The Additional Articles requires direct election of the President by the citizens of the free area.[2] The first direct presidential election was held in 1996. Under the original constitution, the President was elected indirectly by the National Assembly.

The Additional Articles of the Constitution reformed the government of the Republic of China from a parliamentary system to a semi-presidential system. The National Assembly is abolished, and its functions are exercised directly by the citizens of the Free area. The five-power governmental structure is retained, though it functions closer to the traditional Western trias politica in practice.

The Additional Articles were ratified on June 7, 2005, a constitutional amendment or an alteration of the national territory has to be ratified by more than half (50%) of voters of the Free Area in a referendum after passed in the Legislative Yuan with a three-quarters majority. Before that, constitutional amendments and national territory alterations were ratified by the National Assembly.

. . . Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China . . .

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. . . Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China . . .

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