List of laser types

This is a list of laser types, their operational wavelengths, and their applications. Thousands of kinds of laser are known, but most of them are used only for specialized research.

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An immense slab of “continuous melt” processed neodymium-doped laser glass for use on the National Ignition Facility.

. . . List of laser types . . .

Wavelengths of commercially available lasers. Laser types with distinct laser lines are shown above the wavelength bar, while below are shown lasers that can emit in a wavelength range. The height of the lines and bars gives an indication of the maximal power/pulse energy commercially available, while the color codifies the type of laser material (see the figure description for details). Most of the data comes from Weber’s book Handbook of laser wavelengths,[1] with newer data in particular for the semiconductor lasers.
Main article: Gas laser
Laser gain medium and type Operation wavelength(s) Pump source Applications and notes
Helium–neon laser 632.8 nm (543.5 nm, 593.9 nm, 611.8 nm, 1.1523 μm, 1.52 μm, 3.3913 μm) Electrical discharge Interferometry, holography, spectroscopy, barcode scanning, alignment, optical demonstrations.
Argon laser 454.6 nm, 488.0 nm, 514.5 nm (351 nm, 363.8, 457.9 nm, 465.8 nm, 476.5 nm, 472.7 nm, 528.7 nm, also frequency doubled to provide 244 nm, 257 nm) Electrical discharge Retinalphototherapy (for diabetes), lithography, confocal microscopy, spectroscopy pumping other lasers.
Krypton laser 416 nm, 530.9 nm, 568.2 nm, 647.1 nm, 676.4 nm, 752.5 nm, 799.3 nm Electrical discharge Scientific research, mixed with argon to create “white-light” lasers, light shows.
Xenon ion laser Many lines throughout visible spectrum extending into the UV and IR Electrical discharge Scientific research.
Nitrogen laser 337.1 nm Electrical discharge Pumping of dye lasers, measuring air pollution, scientific research. Nitrogen lasers can operate superradiantly (without a resonator cavity). Amateur laser construction. See TEA laser.
Carbon dioxide laser 10.6 μm, (9.4 μm) Transverse (high-power) or longitudinal (low-power) electrical discharge Material processing (laser cutting, laser beam welding, etc.), surgery, dental laser, military lasers.
Carbon monoxide laser 2.6 to 4 μm, 4.8 to 8.3 μm Electrical discharge Material processing (engraving, welding, etc.), photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Excimer laser 157 nm (F2), 193.3 nm (ArF), 248 nm (KrF), 308 nm (XeCl), 351 nm (XeF) Excimer recombination via electrical discharge Ultravioletlithography for semiconductor manufacturing, laser surgery, LASIK, scientific research.

. . . List of laser types . . .

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. . . List of laser types . . .

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