Provençal dialect

Provençal (/ˌprɒvɒ̃ˈsɑːl/, also UK: /-sæl/,[4]US: /ˌpr-, vən-/; French: provençal[pʁɔvɑ̃sal], locally [pʁovãⁿˈsalə]; Occitan: provençau or prouvençau[pʀuvenˈsaw]) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in Southern France, mostly in Provence. Historically, the term Provençal has been used to refer to the whole of the Occitan language, but today it is considered more technically appropriate to refer only to the variety of Occitan spoken in Provence.[5][6]

Dialect of Occitan
For other uses of Provençal, see Provençal.
Not to be confused with Franco-Provençal, a distinct language that shares features of both French and the Provençal dialect (Occitan).
Provençal
prouvençau (mistralian norm)
provençal/provençau (classical norm)
Native to France, Italy, Monaco
Native speakers
(350,000 cited 1990)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Glottolog prov1235
ELP Provençal
IETF oc-provenc[2][3]

Provençal is also the customary name given to the older version of the Occitan language used by the troubadours of medievalliterature, when Old French or the langue d’oïl was limited to the northern areas of France. Thus the ISO 639-3 code for Old Occitan is [pro].

In 2007, all the ISO 639-3 codes for Occitan dialects, including [prv] for Provençal, were retired and merged into [oci] Occitan. The old codes ([prv], [auv], [gsc], [lms], [lnc]) are no longer in active use, but still have the meaning assigned them when they were established in the Standard.[7]

. . . Provençal dialect . . .

The main subdialects of Provençal are:

Gavòt (in French Gavot), spoken in the Western Occitan Alps, around Digne, Sisteron, Gap, Barcelonnette and the upper County of Nice, but also in a part of the Ardèche, is not exactly a subdialect of Provençal, but rather a closely related Occitan dialect, also known as Vivaro-Alpine. So is the dialect spoken in the upper valleys of Piedmont, Italy (Val Maira, Val Varacha, Val d’Estura, Entraigas, Limon, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriera).[8] Some people view Gavòt as a variety of Provençal since a part of the Gavot area (near Digne and Sisteron) belongs to historical Provence.

When written in the Mistralian norm (“normo mistralenco“), definite articles are lou in the masculine singular, la in the feminine singular and li in the masculine and feminine plural (lis before vowels). Nouns and adjectives usually drop the Latin masculine endings, but -e remains; the feminine ending is -o. Nouns do not inflect for number, but all adjectives ending in vowels (-e or -o) become -i, and all plural adjectives take -s before vowels.

When written in the classical norm (“norma classica“), definite articles are masculine lo, feminine la, and plural lis. Nouns and adjectives usually drop the Latin masculine endings, but -e remains; the feminine ending is -a. Nouns inflect for number, all adjectives ending in vowels (-e or -a) become -i, and all plural adjectives take -s.

Comparison of articles and endings between the two norms
English Mistralian norm Classical norm
Singular Masculine the good friend lou boun ami lo bon amic
Feminine la bouno amigo la bona amiga
Plural Masculine the good friends li bouns ami lis bons amics
Feminine li bounis ami lis bonis amigas

Pronunciation remains the same in both norms (Mistralian and classical), which are only two different ways to write the same language.

. . . Provençal dialect . . .

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. . . Provençal dialect . . .

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